By Guido Westerwelle (auth.), Susanne Wasum-Rainer, Ingo Winkelmann, Katrin Tiroch (eds.)
Developments within the Arctic area are more and more a part of foreign dialogue. The publication incorporates a accomplished and interdisciplinary research of the present difficulties round marine medical examine within the Arctic area. It combines clinical, felony and coverage points. the most questions addressed are: ongoing and destiny Arctic marine examine, marine examine within the Arctic Ocean in perform, the criminal framework, enlarged continental cabinets and the liberty of marine technology and particularities and demanding situations of the Arctic sector. The members are prime specialists within the box of politics, legislation and science.
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Extra info for Arctic Science, International Law and Climate Change: Legal Aspects of Marine Science in the Arctic Ocean
Transpolar shipping will increase and the region will also become more accessible for other activities such as tourism. With a warming Arctic, new species – both plants and animals – will migrate northwards and come into contact with species currently resident. The same will apply to human populations. During the Cold War, huge military infrastructures existed in the North. Even if some of these installations have been decommissioned, the Arctic will remain an important military-strategic area.
These efforts have focused on decommissioning nuclear submarines, improving the safety culture at nuclear power plants and other related facilities, and improved handling and safe storage of nuclear waste and fuel. As of September 2010, 118 out of 122 nuclear submarines from the Russian Northern Fleet had been decommissioned and two were in the process of being decommissioned. The resulting nuclear waste is shipped to the reprocessing plant in Majak. This cleanup work (2002 – 2012) has a price tag of approximately US$ 20 billion.
Sea ice also plays a significant role for the Arctic climate. The white surface reflects most (ca. With the increased melting of sea ice, more energy from the sun is absorbed by the dark ocean waters thereby increasing the temperature of surface waters. The same mechanism occurs over land areas where snow and ice melt exposes darker land surfaces that can absorb the energy. IV. Results Over the past 20 years, the priority ‘issues of concern’ for the Arctic environment and its people with respect to pollution have been associated with the following contaminant groups: radionuclides, persistent organic pollutants, certain heavy metals – especially mercury –, acidifying substances, radiatively important trace species (climate forcers), and petroleum hydrocarbons.
Arctic Science, International Law and Climate Change: Legal Aspects of Marine Science in the Arctic Ocean by Guido Westerwelle (auth.), Susanne Wasum-Rainer, Ingo Winkelmann, Katrin Tiroch (eds.)