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Animal Learning: An Introduction (Introductions to Modern - download pdf or read online

By Stephen F Walker

ISBN-10: 0710204825

ISBN-13: 9780710204820

An advent to animal studying because it has been studied in glossy experimental psychology, with an old creation to the nature/nurture arguement in either animal and human psycholgy. contains dialogue of habituation, classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning, perceptual and discrimination studying, and reminiscence and cognition within the context of animal behaviour.

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Example text

In order to study psychological effects on digestive secretions more thoroughly, it was enough to measure the effects of selected artificial stimuli on volume of salivation, and this could be accomplished by means of a minor operation to lead salivation out through a tube in the dog’s cheek. 1). The acquisition of conditioned reflexes A wide variety of experimental stimuli were used in Pavlov’s experiments bells, buzzers, pure tones, and the sounds of musical instruments, presentation of illuminated visual patterns, or the sight of gradually rotating objects.

In all the experiments of this kind, it had to be shown first, of course, that the sounding of stimuli such as the whistle did not suppress salivation by distraction, but many examples confirmed that a stimulus which suppressed responding when combined with one positive signal tended to suppress salivation to any other signal. Thus Pavlov called additional stimuli of this kind ‘conditioned inhibitors’ (1927, p. 77). The procedure of assessing a stimulus with suspected inhibitory properties by adding it to another with known response-eliciting potential is still in use, and indeed Mackintosh (1983, p.

Its popularity with experimental physiologists is due to the fact that its nerve cells are gigantic, some up to 1 mm across, and relatively few in number. The behavioural responses of its mantleshelf, which contains gills and a siphon, are controlled by the abdominal ganglion which contains only about 2,000 neurons, several of which can be individually identified in every animal. This makes it an excellent subject for the plotting-out of which nerve cell does what, and the examination of how the electrical characteristics of neurons change as a function of experience (Kandel, 1976; Castellucci and Kandel, 1976).

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Animal Learning: An Introduction (Introductions to Modern Psychology) by Stephen F Walker

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