By John M. Weiler
This designated source offers allergic and airway stipulations noticeable in leisure and aggressive athletes-covering subject matters from exercise-induced bronchial asthma to chilly air-induced rhinitis.
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Extra info for Allergic and Respiratory Disease in Sports Medicine (Clinical Allergy and Immunology)
The fundamental gas-exchanging region of the lung is the pulmonary acinus, which is a few tenths of a millimeter in dimension and is composed of several alveoli. Not all acini have the same amount of ventilation () or perfusion (Q), leading to inhomogeneity of gas exchange. The oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures in an acinus (PAO2, PACO2) reflect a balance between perfusion and ventilation, the /Q ratio. An acinus that is well perfused (lower /Q) will have a lower PAO2 and higher PACO2 compared with one that is poorly perfused, but Page 19 adequately ventilated (high /Q).
Aerobic fibers produce CO2 in units approximately equal to O2 consumption; however, the more glycolytic fibers use little O2 and produce CO2 at approximately fourfold higher rates . Thus, as these fibers are recruited with progressive exercise, a substantially greater CO2 load will be presented to the lung for clearance. An inadequate ventilatory response results in enhanced metabolic acidosis and premature cessation of activity. Page 5 Fig. 2 Proposed mechanism of cellular respiration (a) at rest and (b) during intense exercise, leading to enhanced CO2 production and increased ventilation.
Although there is considerable overlap in the metabolic and functional properties of muscle fibers, type I fibers tend to stain more richly for oxidative enzymes and less so for glycolytic enzymes, whereas type IIb fibers tend to stain in a reverse pattern . Type IIa and IIx fibers typically stain intermediately for these enzymes . Genetic predisposition largely governs the fiber-type makeup of a muscle; however, training alters the enzymatic profile of muscle fibers [42,47,86]. Muscle fibers have also been classified based on motor unit properties .
Allergic and Respiratory Disease in Sports Medicine (Clinical Allergy and Immunology) by John M. Weiler