By Saartje Verbeke
The ebook presents an outline of the alignment styles present in smooth Indo-Aryan languages. The research of the styles of case marking and contract ends up in a balanced view at the thought of ergativity and evaluates its worth for typological linguistics. The booklet bargains an intensive dialogue of past ways to ergativity. It analyzes 4 Indo-Aryan languages - Asamiya, Nepali, Rajasthani and Kashmiri - at the foundation of textual content corpora. Examples from different Indo-Aryan languages also are adduced. The ebook is an intensive synchronic learn of alignment styles in Indo-Aryan languages.
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Additional info for Alignment and Ergativity in New Indo-Aryan Languages
E. A and P are “reminiscent of the semantic terms agent and patient”. However, despite the correlation between A/P and the semantic roles of agent/ patient, A and P are in “syntactic opposition”, rather than “semantic opposition” like agent/patient (Comrie 1978: 330–331). The agent and the patient are the participants in a “prototypical transitive situation”, irrespective of the syntax (Comrie 1989: 111). The grammatical roles A and P have the advantage over the semantic roles of agent and patient because grammatical roles may be identified even in non-prototypical transitive situations.
However, this terminology has thus far not been commonly used. 12 Although less explicitly addressed in the literature, the same distinction between a discriminatory and characterizing approach can be found regarding the case marking of ditransitive constructions. The characterizing approach is often preferred because the typical marking of the IO is related to the semantic role of recipient. Nevertheless, the attestation of secundative and indirective alignment in ditransitive constructions has shown that a discriminatory approach can also be applied to ditransitive alignment.
Givón orders the properties hierarchically from most universal to least universal. The most universal properties are also the most strongly related to topicality: functional reference-and-topicality properties < behaviour-and-control properties < word order < grammatical agreement < nominal case-marking The category of subject can be universally determined if one observes the leftmost properties within the hierarchy (Givón 1995: 251–252, Cole et al. 1980). Case marking, the rightmost property, is considered to be highly language-particular and hence much less helpful in determining the subject.
Alignment and Ergativity in New Indo-Aryan Languages by Saartje Verbeke