By Edited by: Assoc. Costas Sikalidis
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Additional resources for Advances in Ceramics - Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, Bioceramics, Ceramics and Environment
Equations (1) and (2) give constitutive equations in scalar formulation, where the electrical field and strain have the same direction, which corresponds to the (3,3)piezoelectric effect, or are perpendicular as in the case of the (3,1)-effect. Stress and strain always have the same direction. The constitutive equations applied to cuboids (Figure 1) with basic area A and length L, whose electrodes are supplied with a voltage = ∙ , deliver the charge = ∙ stored on that element Q = d⋅F + C⋅U (3) and the change of length ΔL ΔL = F + d⋅U cm (4) Here F = T ⋅A describes the force acting on the surface A, cm = C =ε ⋅ (5) A specifies the spring constant and sE ⋅ L A is the capacity of the element.
41, No. 3, (February 2006), pp. 763-777, ISBN 00222461 Munir, Z. ; Quach, D. V. & Ohyanagi, M. (2011) Electric current activation of sintering: A review of the pulsed electric current sintering process, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 1, (January 2011), pp. 1-19, ISBN 0027820 Neirman, S. M. (1988). The Curie point temperature of Ba(Zr1-xZrx)O3 solid solutions, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 23, No. 11 (November 1988), pp. 3973-3980, ISBN 00222461 Takahashi, H. , (2006). Piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics with high performance fabricated by microwave sintering.
Figure 4 shows two variants of planar systems. Variant a) is driven by the length reduction of a central plate. Two levers, one on each side, amplify this motion up to 2x88 µm, while delivering a force of 4 N. Variant b) utilizes another method of motion amplification by adding respectively subtracting the motion generated by the bars of a meander structure. Fig. 4. Actuator prototypes using several construction principles Variant c) uses a tongue in the middle of a base plate. If the base plate shrinks, due to an electric field, the passive tongue acts as a kind of two-side supported lever system and bends perpendicular to the base plate.
Advances in Ceramics - Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, Bioceramics, Ceramics and Environment by Edited by: Assoc. Costas Sikalidis